Therapeutic Puppetry (TP)

   

Therapeutic Puppetry

            "Puppets are sometimes made as conscious self-representations or representations of others, but more                   often, puppets emerge that embody unconscious dynamics or parts of self that are not as easily or openly expressed.”         

                                                                       (Matthew Bernier, Bernier, M & O´Hare, J. 2005, s.125)

All of you having played intense with a puppet – or for that reason an object – have touched the true empowering essence of play. It is a dialogue in which we participate naturally as children, but in fact continue to take part in the whole life through. It vitalizes our beings, we become alive as does the object in our hand. This can be more or less obvious, like shown in the quote. We might not recognize the parts of self externalized, since it has been so well hidden from our counsious selves. This is the core of therapeutic puppetry - as other art therapies - the object, the puppet or the artwork is seen as an a extension of the self. Here lies its healing powers. The English psychoanalyst D.W Winnicott called this area transitional space. It is an area in-between, a bridge between inner and outer reality, subjective and objective experience. An area where transition takes place.

Implications for using puppetry as a therapeutic tool

The diverse way in which puppets can be used in therapeutic settings is quite unique, it is one of the main advantages. The client interested in constructing can focus on making puppets, clothes or props; the ”writer” can work with the story/manuscript; the ”performer” can work with the role playing; the technically interested can work with sound, light e.t.c. Still it is my conviction, that the full process from creation to play should be included as far as possible, at least giving a taste of it. Also you can vary materials a lot, or use different types of puppets such as glove puppets, shadow puppets, rod puppets and marionettes. And these all have their different benefits. A bonus here is that it is a very playful method, that can tempt introvert clients out of isolation. Animal puppets are said to be especially good for that.

The indirect work with puppets create a safe space for  self exploration, lessening its eventual threatening impact. It is not me, but instead the puppet that is doing things, things I might never dare to do. Therefore after having projected on the pupppet, I am not to be blamed any more. A childpsychotherapist named Hedi Perriard Maire (Switzerland) talks about the puppet as identificational, compensational or protectional, as the example and quote implies. In the safe space the client apart from this can develop the ability for symbolization, the nonverbal can become verbal as the stories unfold. The client is helped by feeling a sense of self-control; he/she is in many ways in charge of the puppets. Since the puppet making and playing requiers working with different degrees of control and frustration tolerence, he/she can also get some training in this.  

Advantages with high therapeutic value, is except for creating a safe space the methods rehearsing potential. When role-playing you can rehearse for real life; you can play, get input from the therapist or the group and replay differently. The concrete way of working is excellent, also since you can look back at puppets maid earlier in the therapeutic process and adjust them with new materials or create a different dialogue. Healing is possible working likewise starting in the concrete level. Dissociated parts of self can be put together and become whole, for example when working with anorexic clients.  

Therapeutic approaches and beyond

In the therapeutic process the therapist can work client-centered and follow in the steps of the client, or, be more structured framing the play. He/she can take on a role as an observer, promter, alter ego or another suitable one. It all depends on aim and theoretical background. Examples of theoretical approaches in this area is psychoanalytical, psychodynamic, jungian, existential, cognitive, narrative and gestalt. These can be integrated and mixed with drama therapy, play therapy, art therapy, expressive arts, psychodrama etc.

Therapists with different backgrounds use puppets in therapy around the world today, but very few work as full time puppet therapists. Examples of practitioners ranging from usisng puppets for social change to psychotherapy are Gary Friedman (Australia; HIV- and prisonprojects etc worldwide), Diana Chiles (USA; children in hospital) and Joanne F. Vizzini (USA; private practise, courses etc).

For interested there are two schools giving education to become puppet terapist, but both are in German language (Germany and Swizerland). Travelling English speaking teachers are among others Matthew G. Bernier (Eastern Virginia School, USA) and Gudrun Gauda (Das Frankfurter Institut für Gestaltung und Kommunikation, Germany, mother tounge German).